Posted: February 16th, 2022

Costs of environmental damage in Saudi Arabia

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Learning Goal: I’m working on a economics writing question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.I have a set of questions that I need to solveThe attachments will help us in the solution. Please refer to them when writing the solutionFavorable studiesGrossman and Krueger(1991/1994)Grossman and Krueger have studied the relationship between per capita income (PPP in $ 1985) and water and air pollution. Their studies are based on statistical data provided by GEMS (Global Environmental Monitoring System) and WHO (World Health Organization). The observations made by the authors concern air pollution, and cover 42 countries over the period from 1977 to 1988, and also water pollution, and cover 58 countries between 1979 and 1990. Grossman and Krueger affirm that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between air pollution and the level of per capita income for a threshold (turning point) of $ 5,000. So when the per capita income exceeds $ 5,000, economic growth in these countries translates into improved air quality. The same result is obtained for water pollution, but for a threshold equal to $ 8,000 per capita. Their main conclusion is that the inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth is confirmed and applies to all middle-income countries.Add 3 other Favorable studiesUnfavorable studiesAkbostanci and al. (2009)Akbostanci and al. have examined the relationship between air pollution and economic growth for Turkey at two levels. First, they studied the relationship between the level of per capita income and CO2 emissions by time series analyzes using the technique of cointegration in a multivariate framework (the Johansen cointegration approach) for a period from 1968 to 2003. In the second step, they studied the relationship between the level of per capita income and SO2 emissions based on the estimation of panel data from 59 provinces between 1992 and 2001. Their empirical results show that there is no relationship in the form of a EKC between the selected environmental indicators and economic growth. Akbostanci et al. (2009) argue that air pollution for the case of Turkey will not automatically disappear with economic growth.Add 3 other Favorable studies1/ Describe some studies about EKC in Saudi Arabia.Write one page about the sustainable development concept (How to meet the needs of present generations without compromising the ability to meet those of future generations.) and show the importance of studying the relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth in general2/ Describe the economic and environmental situation in Saudi Arabia:Evolution of real GDP per capita (graphic)
Costs of environmental damage in Saudi Arabia (for example, damage costs related to air pollution, Water and solid waste you should draw some graphics (Evolution of CO2 and SO2 emissions)
Give some policies implemented in the field of the environment and sustainable development in Saudi Arabia
Evolution of investment amounts in the field of environmental protection in Saudi Arabia
3/ Describe the problem statement and objective of your dissertation and give your methodology to solve it. Furthermore, you should give some convincing arguments: why do you choose Saudi Arabia as a case study in your dissertation? You can say that: Saudi Arabia appears to be an interesting case study given that it is one of the highest Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) in the Gulf Cooperation Council and (See the last part of the Introduction in Zaghdoud and Fodha article
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