Posted: March 2nd, 2022

State the function of membrane transport proteins and differentiate between transporters and ion channels.

Place your order now for a similar assignment and have exceptional work written by our team of experts, At affordable rates

For This or a Similar Paper Click To Order Now

Learning Goal: I’m working on a biology test / quiz prep and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.I need help with a timed 40 multiply choice question cell biology assignment that will begin at 11:00am in the United States till 12:15pm. I will post the PowerPoints that cover these questions and I need a tutor to be ready by 11:00am to start the practice test with me. the assignment will begin in 8 hours starting from 3:00am so I really need someone to prepare and be ready. weekly objectives 1Recall why water-soluble molecules and ions have difficulty crossing an artificial lipid bilayer.
Review the properties that govern the rate at which a given solute can cross a protein-free lipid bilayer.
State the function of membrane transport proteins and differentiate between transporters and ion channels.
Distinguish between simple diffusion and facilitated transport (passive and active transport).
Explain why the concentration of ions in the cell differs from that outside the cell.
Compare how transporters and channels discriminate among solutes, moving only a select subset across the membrane.
Distinguish between active and passive transport, and indicate which type of membrane transport protein carries out each.
Review the forces that govern the passive transport of charged and uncharged solutes across a cell membrane.
Describe the ways in which water can move across cell membranes, and articulate what governs whether water will enter or exit a cell.
Contrast how plant cells, animal cells, and protozoa maintain their osmotic equilibrium.
Compare how ion channels and transporters conformations change with respect to the passage of individual solutes across the membrane.
Review how the sodium pump in animal cells uses the energy supplied by ATP hydrolysis to maintain the concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions.
Differentiate between the following gradient driven pumps: symport and antiport. Contrast to the uniport transporter.
Recall that ion channels can be gated by different stimuli
Define “resting membrane potential.”
Outline how membrane depolarization triggers an action potential and how the action potential spreads along the membrane.
Compare the roles that Na+-gated and K+-gated ion channels play in an action potential.
Recall how potassium leak channels participate in establishing the cell’s resting membrane potential.
Review the anatomy of a nerve cell and discuss the direction in which electrical signals travel from one neuron to another.
Review how an electrical signal is converted to a chemical signal at a nerve terminal.
weekly objectives 2Recall how the free-energy change of a reaction determines whether it is energetically favorable or not.Review the relationship between ΔG, equilibrium, and the concentrations of a reaction’s substrates and products.Compare and contrast ΔG to ΔG°.Contrast anabolic and catabolic reactions, as well as endergonic and exergonic reactions.Review how activated carriers link catabolic and anabolic reactions.Relate how the energy of ATP hydrolysis can be harnessed to drive an energetically unfavorable condensation reaction.Define cell respiration.Compare and contrast oxidation and reduction reactions and how carriers are involved.Summarize why cells need enzymes to maximize the energy that can be harvested from the oxidation of a fuel molecule such as glucose.Outline the three stages of catabolism, indicating where each takes place (glycolysis in the cytosol, the citric acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix, and oxidative phosphorylation in the inner mitochondrial membrane)Define the ways in which animals cells make ATP.Summarize the amount of ATP energy invested and the amount recouped during the breakdown of a glucose molecule during glycolysis.Explain how the generation of NADH in step 6 of glycolysis is linked to an oxidation reaction.Contrast the fermentation pathway in an oxygen-starved muscle cell with the pathway in a yeast cell that is growing anaerobically.Explain what it means for a bond to be described as having “high energy.”Summarize how the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted into acetyl CoA, and state where the process takes place.Review how and where the fatty acids derived from fat are converted into acetyl CoA.Outline the fate of the acetyl group carbons that enter the citric acid cycleRecognize the importance of the gradient in both generating ATP and powering the active membrane transport machinery that supports ATP synthesis.Understand the gradual stepping down of energy level that explains the efficiency of energy transduction in living systems. weekly objectives 3 Differentiate between the mechanisms of ATP production by glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation
Compare and contrast the membrane-based processes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis
Compare and contrast the structure of a mitochondrion and a chloroplast. Indicate the functions of its membranes and compartments.
Recall the activated carriers, generated by the citric acid cycle, which will transfer high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain.
Distinguish the source of the high-energy electrons that power ATP production during cell respiration and photosynthesis.
Define redox potential and relate redox potential to electron affinity.
Explain which way electrons flow in the electron transport chain.
Recall the direction in which protons are pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Review the membrane potential and pH gradients across the inner mitochondrial membrane, and state in which direction it is energetically favorable for protons to flow.
Explain how ATP synthase acts as a motor to convert the energy of protons flowing down an electrochemical gradient into the chemical bond energy in ATP and the conditions under which ATP synthase will act as a proton pump and hydrolyze ATP.
Outline how the electrochemical proton gradient is used to drive the transport of metabolites across the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotic cells
Compare where electrons donated by NADH and FADH2 enter the respiratory chain.
Identify the main source of the protons pumped across the inner mitochondrial membrane by the electron transport chain and summarize how electron carriers are able to transfer a proton from one side of the membrane to the other.
Summarize why cytochrome c oxidase must bind oxygen tightly.
Outline the events that take place during stage 1 of photosynthesis (light reactions) and compare this process to the oxidative phosphorylation that occurs in mitochondria.
Review the events that take place in stage 2 of photosynthesis (light independent reactions, Calvin cycle) and indicate where these reactions occur.
Summarize how light energy, captured by a chlorophyll molecule in an antenna complex, is transferred to the chlorophyll special pair in the reaction center.
Outline how the transfer of an electron from the chlorophyll special pair to a mobile electron carrier creates a charge separation that effectively converts light energy into chemical energy.
Differentiate between photosystems I and II, indicate the electron carriers to which they transfer their high-energy electrons, and state the source of the electrons that replace those donated by their chlorophyll special pairs.
Compare the redox potentials of oxygen/water, oxidized/reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, plastoquinone, plastocyanin, and ferredoxin, and indicate which way electrons will flow.
Identify the molecules that provide the energy to convert carbon dioxide into sugars.
Recall the role that Rubisco and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate plays in the carbon fixation cycle.
Interpret the reactions that take place in the Calvin cycle.
List the major membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell and briefly describe the function of each.
Identify the eukaryotic organelles that are surrounded by double membranes.
Contrast the different types of mechanisms for targeting proteins to their final location/destination.
Compare and contrast the conformation adopted by proteins during their transport into their final location/destination.
Explain how the hierarchical nature of the targeting signals work.
Predict how changes in amino acid targeting sequences affect the protein location.
Apply the concepts of necessary and sufficient
Describe the relationship between the ER and the nuclear membrane.
List the organelles that form the endomembrane system, review how the interiors of these organelles communicate with one another and with the cell exterior.
Describe the fate of proteins that lack a sorting signal.
Describe how nuclear receptors escort proteins into and out of the nucleus.
Summarize how the energy supplied by GTP is used to drive nuclear transport.
Articulate how mitochondrial and chloroplasts proteins encoded in the nuclear genome are targeted to different compartments wit these organelles, describe the role played by chaperones inside the organelle.
Contrast the mechanisms and destinations of the transmembrane and water-soluble proteins that are transferred to the ER
Distinguish between free ribosomes and membrane-bound ribosome
Review the machinery for co-translational transport
Recall the location, function, and ultimate fate of the ER signal sequence on soluble proteins. Compare it to the locations and fates of the ER signal and stop-transfer sequences of single-pass transmembrane proteins to the start-transfer and stop-transfer sequences of multipass transmembrane proteins.
Draw the arrangement of transmembrane domain containing proteins synthesized in the RER.
Requirements: answer/no work need/multiple choice   |   .doc file

For This or a Similar Paper Click To Order Now

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price: